- Identify common appliances that run on electricity

- Construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers

- Recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors

- Identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery

- Recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit



- Recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light

- Notice that light is reflected from surfaces

- Recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect their eyes

- Recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by a solid object

- Find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change



- Identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating

- Recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear

- Recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases

- Find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it

- Find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it



- Associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in a circuit

- Compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches

- Use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram



- Recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines

- Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye

- Explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes

- Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them